Compare Deming, Juran and Crosby






Definition of




-It is conformance to requirements , not as goodness


-It is management’s job to set the requirements and communicate to employees.


Meeting and exceeding the customer’s need and expectations and then continuing to improve.


-Quality mission of the company is “fitness for use” as perceived by customers.

-The mission of individual departments are to work according to specifications designed to achieve fitness for use.



Degree of Senior management involvement


-Quality improvement starts from the top.

-Senior management is 100 percent responsible for the problems with Quality and their continuance.



-Quality is made in the board room.


Majority of Quality problems are the fault of poor management rather than poor workmanship.


Performance standard / Goal setting


-Performance standard must be zero defect, not that’s close enough.

-Encourage individuals to establish improvement goals for themselves and their groups.



Eliminate management by numbers , numerical goals. Substitute leadership.


General approach



The system for causing Quality is prevention , not appraisal.

(The secret of prevention is to look at the process and identify opportunities for error)





Statistical process control (SPC) /

Quality Control (QC)





The concept of control is one of “holding the status quo” : keeping a planned process in its planned state so that it remains able to meet the operating goals.



Improvement basis



-Quality improvement is built on getting everyone to do it right the first time (DIRFT)


-Quality improvement is a process ,not a program , and it takes a long time for it to become a normal part of the scene.



-Put everyone in the company to work to accomplish the transformation. The transformation is every body’s job.


- Repeated use of PDSA cycle.


-Quality improvement is not fire fighting ,or removing a sporadic spike. More than that quality improvement raises quality performance to imprecedented or break through levels.


-All quality improvement takes place project by project.



Team work



Management must break down barriers between departments. Each department must see other department as internal customer , when this is practiced the barriers begin to fall.



Single sourcing of supply








There should be a single supplier for any one item , on a long term relationship of loyalty and trust.

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Cost of quality



- Measurement of quality is the price of non conformance , not indexes.

- Price of non conformance is by counting every thing

that is spent if every thing was not done right the first time.


- Companies should look at the total cost of product or service provided by others , and not just the purchase price.

Accepting the lowest bid does not guarantee the lowest total cost.


- Cost Of Poor Quality (COPQ) is the sum of all costs that would disappear if there were no quality problems.


- Quality improvement does not come free.








-Orientation to the concepts and procedures of quality

-Direct skill improvement

-Continual quality data communications.



-Training should be given on the job.

-Every one should be trained in basic statistical methods.

- Training boosts morale because it provides workers with a greater sense of security and value and a lower stress level.



Quality awareness


Share with employees the measurement of what nonconformity is costing to the company.


Management must eliminate slogans , exhortations and targets asking for zero defects and new levels of productivity from the work force.






Individual recognition for those who meet their goals or perform outstanding acts.



Abolish the annual merit or rating system.Instead leader should learn who is in need of individual help , whose work processes show extra good performance. Improve the system and shrink the difference between the people that belong to the system.


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Company culture



The culture of the company is going to change only when all employees absorb the common language of quality and begin to understand their individual roles in making quality improvement happen.



Leadership must be instituted. The aim of leadership should be to help peaple and machines do a better job.

Drive out the fear so that everyone may work effectively for the company.


Inspection / defect control



Two factors cause defects or mistakes : Lack of knowledge and lack of attention.



Cease dependence on inspection to achieve quality. Eliminate the need for mass inspection by building quality into the product in the first place.



Operator errors can be reduced by : foolproofing , keeping people attentive , training , changing technology , improving communication , establishing accountabilty , removing the error-prone person and motivation.


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